Wednesday, February 24, 2010

FW: The Preparation and Printing of the First Edition of the Book of Concord

From Paul T McCain…


Feed: Cyberbrethren Lutheran Blog Feed
Posted on: Wednesday, February 24, 2010 4:21 AM
Author: Paul T. McCain
Subject: The Preparation and Printing of the First Edition of the Book of Concord


My colleagues here at Concordia Publishing House, Rev. Dr. Benjamin Mayes and Rev. Charles Schaum, prepared a translation of several pages from the Die Bekenntnisschriften der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche, the critical edition of the Lutheran Confessions, which deal with the preparation and printing of the first edition of the Book of Concord. I thought you might enjoy reading it, assuming you are a BOC geek like us.

The Text History of the First Edition of the Book of Concord

Translated by Rev. Dr. Benjamin Mayes and Rev. Charles Schaum from the Introduction to the Formula of Concord in the BSLK

The German Book of Concord (Konkordienbuch; abbreviated Konk.) was typeset probably starting in the summer of 1578 in the Dresden printing works of Matthes Stöckel and Gimel Bergen in the extent determined by the introduction to the FC [Formula of Concord].[i] They began with the FC. Andreae had the chief supervision and committed the proof-reading to Master Peter Glaser and Caspar Fuger from the Ministerium of Holy Cross Church [in Dresden] (Kreuzkirche). Glaser also prepared the index.[ii] On April 12, 1579 the printing was completed except for the title page, Preface, Catalog of Testimonies, and the list of signatories. A copy was immediately furnished for Chemnitz. On August 19, Secretary Elias Vogel permitted three copies to be bound by Jakob Krause, probably for the Electors.

Andreae had pushed on May 22 for an expedited printing of the Preface[iii] together with the title page, but only after the Heidelberg Recess[iv] did [Chancellor] Haubold von Einsiedel give the command for them to be typeset (August 9) and order 140 copies from Vögelin,[v] i.e., in Leipzig (August 13). Presumably the order was adhered to, since on August 23 the Elector commanded the printing of twenty copies that were to be sent with the same number of manuscript copies for the purposes of subscribing to them. This was carried out on September 26.

The list of signatories was not yet completed toward the end of March 1580. "Through the mercy of God" Andreae pleaded for the submission of subscriptions from Wolfenbüttel.[vi] Already in April incomplete copies (according to Andreae) were brought to the book fair in Leipzig. According to others, they were without the title and perhaps sold in small quantity. They were then subsequently withdrawn from circulation, but a Magdeburg paper salesman, Thomas Frantz, had already initiated a private reprint at the beginning of May.

After Elector Ludwig of the Palatinate made his final decision to join (June 13, 1580), the title page (see below), Preface, and Catalog of Testimonies[vii] had to be reprinted. The same occurred during the printing of at least two other signatures[viii] at the instigation of Chemnitz and Andreae. Nevertheless the printer reintroduced in haphazard[ix] fashion the signatures that had been excluded, and even the old title page, which was first noticed by Elector Ludwig. Aside from other aberrations, even in the list of the signatories, this was also observed with embarrassment (and the printer was fined 200 Gulden) when the three originalia, that is, the "authentica," [the authoritative copies] were set aside in the electoral chanceries according to a suggestion of Elector Ludwig on June 13, 1580.

On this occasion [of dealing with the authentica] the question of the Marriage Booklet and Baptismal Booklet led to prolonged negotiations.[x] They were first included in keeping with their usual connect

ion with the Small Catechism (according to Andreae as a result of an error by the proofreaders) but then Andreae removed them again, since [they are] a part of church order but not of doctrine. This material, likewise, was not removed entirely, as Duke Julius of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel soon noticed. At the examination of the three planned authentica, Elector Johann Georg [of Brandenburg] wanted to have the Small Catechism "without truncation," as did the churches of Lower Saxony, whereas the other two Electors had misgivings due to the position of the southern Germans regarding exorcism. Chemnitz suggested that they choose for the three originalia the Heidelberg printing of 1582, in which the Marriage Booklet and Baptismal Booklet are absent, leave Elector Johann Georg free to include these pieces, and subscribe to all three copies with a special explanation regarding this decision. Finally, in 1583, Elector Ludwig signed a copy without the Marriage Booklet and Baptismal Booklet and without any explanation. On the recommendation of Chemnitz, the Dresden Konkordienbuch was organized so that the Marriage Booklet and Baptismal Booklet should be offered separately. The place where they would have been was to be indicated by enumerating the page count 169, 170, 171, 172, 173 on the last page of the Small Catechism. Alongside of that, copies were also issued in which the Marriage Booklet and Baptismal Booklet were absent and any indication [of where they should have been] was also missing. Resulting from the multiple changes during the printing, also in the title and final pages of the FC, the ability to ascertain the sequence of different editions of the Dresden Konkordienbuch in 1580, in spite of astute attempts,[xi] has led to speculation—two, four, six, or seven editions—of which the paucity in extent of the material under scrutiny has deprived it of support. The assumption of two complete editions in the year 1580, in any case, has some probability, especially since Andreae was counting on the opportunity to make later improvements and additions to the list of signatories (Electoral Palatinate), as well as through the inclusion of a list of corrigenda (=Cor) in a few copies of the Dresden 1580 Konkordienbuch. The later editions are covered by [Theodor] Kolde, Einleitung, LXXV f.

IV. The Title Page of Konk. according to its first published version, which was together with the first printing of the introduction (=A), reads as follows:

Formula of Concord

that is:


Salutary, Pure

Agreement, in which the Divine

Doctrine of the most Preeminent Articles of our True

Religion, from Holy Scripture, into Short Confessions or Symbols and

Doctrinal Writings, which Already Previous to this Time by the

Churches of God of the Augsburg Confession

were Accepted and Approved, are Composed.

Together with a Steadfast, Well-grounded in God's Word, Right,

Final Repetition, Explanation, and Resolution of that

Conflict, which Among Some Theologians who

Confess the abovementioned Confession has occurred.

Everything According to the Content of Holy Scripture, as the Sole Straightedge

of Divine Truth, and According to the Instruction of the Aforementioned Writings

that are Approved in the Church of God.

At the Most Merciful, Gracious, and Opportune

Command, Prescription, and Consent

of the Listed Christian Electors, Princes, and Estates of the

Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, of the

the Augsburg Confession, for the Comfort and Well-being of their Lands, Churches, Schools, and Descendants

prepared in Print.

With the Dispensation of His Electoral Grace of Saxony.

Dresden, 1579.[xii]

A marginal notation was added by Andreae in a modified copy: "This title was changed, as was counseled in Dessau."

The title seems to have been changed on various occasions, even already at Dessau, November 1579. These intermediate drafts could not be found, only references to them. It received its final form almost entirely through Elector Ludwig, who was quite agitated about those changes during the course of the dispute over the final form of the Preface.[xiii]

V. Translations of the FC: 1. Latin. Already in Bergen, Chytraeus had offered to do a Latin translation, as did Selneccer, who reported: "But our offer inevitably came to naught, and Doctor Jakob [Andreae] wanted it to be translated into Latin in Swabia. And it was so." On April 12, 1579, Andreae reported to the Electors that he had received the translation produced by his brother-in-law Lucas Osiander with presumably considerable participation of Jacob Heerbrand.[xiv] A copy went to Chemnitz, who reworked it considerably—presumably ms. St. At the same time, Andreae advised that it be printed as soon as possible and in January 1580 requested the Latin edition of the AC and Apology of 1531 for this purpose.

Chancellor Haubold von Einsiedel commissioned Selneccer's deacon, Master Simon Gedick with the direction of the printing that was committed to Johannes Steinmann in Leipzig. With the result, the Latin Book of Concord (Conc.) of 1580, Selneccer only was willing to be involved in the completion of an ad hoc translation of the Schmalkald Articles and the preparation of the Greek citations in the Catalog of Testimonies. At the request of Andreae the list of signatories was also included. This document, previously designated the "private edition of Selneccer," was sharply criticized. An approximately simultaneous printing undertaken in Tübingen appeared to grind to a halt due to defects in the text. Because of all this, in July 1581 Selneccer, who on his part had heavily censured the Swabian translation, asked the electoral prince for a six-week leave of absence to work out a new translation. That result was supposed to appear in his German-Latin edition of 1582; it was unsatisfactory. Thus it was that the final, universally accepted [Latin] wording of Conc. 1584[xv] was established at Quedlinburg in January 1583, likely on the basis of Conc. 1580, keeping in mind the recommendations made by Chemnitz [on the Swabian text]. This edition went without the list of subscribers; it presents a revision of the version of 1580, a revision that again changes the edition of 1582. For Selneccer this was not the last; he seemed to have viewed the translation as his property, as a school edition of 1598 shows.[xvi]

2. A French translation was signed in Mömpelgart [Montbéliard] and sent to Dresden. It was supposed to be printed in Tübingen; perhaps it got lost in the process.

3. A Wendish [Sorbian] translation by Primus Truber was given over to the Württemberg Church Council (Kirchenrat) in June 1580; it seems not to have survived.

4. A Czech version, probably in the great translation works of the Count of Hardeck, seems to have been started by a Pastor (?) Sigmund Buchhaver of Leonberg.

5. "Martinus Crusius has translated the Formula of Concord into Greek and, as he writes [to me], it has received favorable consideration by the Greek churches, for he is supposed to have received regarding the matter Greek letters from Constantinople."[xvii]

6. A Spanish edition [appeared] from the pastor in Eberdingen, Master Theophil Breu.

7. A Hungarian translation [appeared] yet in the sixteenth century.

VI. Concerning the Printing of the Text:[xviii] The FC [is printed] according to the original writing of Andreae (A) with the variants of the accessible manuscripts, which, in part,coalesce clearly into three textual groups, of which one (H) points toward Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, and [according to] those of Konk. 1580 and—due to the three authenticaKonk. Heidelberg 1582. Additionally there are the most important lists of corrigenda. In Latin, [it is printed] according to Conc. 1584 with the most important variants of Conc. 1580 and occasionally those of St, which is possibly the version of Osiander and Chemnitz.

The Preface [is printed] according to the version of the Heidelberg Recess and the variants produced by the development and changes made in progression up to Konk. The Latin text is according to Conc. 1584 with variants of Conc. 1580; the editing of the subscriptions comes from Dr. H. Volz.

The Catalog of Testimonies [is printed] according to Konk. 1580 and Conc. 1584.

[i] See BSLK 838, note 1.

[ii] Register. [Words appear bold that occur in German Sperrdruck.]

[iii] Praefatio

[iv] Heidelberger Abschied. [This refers to a point in the negotiations at which a legal decision or conclusion was made, allowing the process to move forward.]

[v] [Vögelin had also circulated ironically the so-called Exegesis Perspicua that harmed the Philippists by unmasking their Crypto-Calvinism.]

[vi] [Wolfenbüttel did not subscribe to the FC.]

[vii] See BSLK 1101, note 1.

[viii] t = folios 240–245 because of the "pudendum erratum," see BSLK 789, note 1; and AA = folios 266–271 due to the alignment of the citations, see BSLK 884, note 1. [A signature (Bogen) results from folding and cutting the sheet on which multiple pages are simultaneously printed. One, (folio), two (quarto) or three (octavo) folds result in four, eight or sixteen pages. The term folio can also refer to a page, as used in the text.]

[ix] verstreut

[x] See Hutterus 1362–74. [The reference is to Leonhard Hutter's Concordia concors, Wittenberg, 1622, reprinted in Frankfurt/Main and Leipzig 1690.]

[xi] Balthasar, Historie [des Torgischen Buchs] I 31f, III 70; Verteidigung zweier im Concordienbuch angefochtener Wörter, 1754, 8f.; Feuerlin, Biblioteca symbolica evang. lutheran., Göttingen, 1752, 9–11; Planck VI 680, Anm.; S. Baumgarten, Vorrede zum Concordienbuch 9f.; Anton II 7; Heppe [Geschichte der lutherischen Concordienformel und Concordie] IV 223.

[xii] Formula Concordiae || Das ist: || Christliche / || Heilsame / Reine || Vergleichunge/ in welcher dir Gött-||liche Leer von den vornembsten Symbola vnd || Leerhaffte Schrifften /: welche allbereit vor dieser zeit von den || Kirchen Gottes Augspurgischer Confeßion / angenommen || vnd approbirt: / vorfasset. || Sampt klerung vnd entscheidung deren || Streit / welche vnder etlichen Theologen / so sich zu ermelter || Confession bekant / fürgefallen. || Alles nach inhalt der heiligen Schrifft / als der einigen Richtschnur || der Göttlichen warheit / vnd nach anleitung obgemelter in der Kir-||chen Gottes / approbierten Schrifften. || Auff gnedigsten / genedigen auch gün-||stigen beuehl / verordnung vnd einwilligung nach || beschriebener Christlichen Churfürsten / Fürsten vnd Stende des || heiligen Römischen Reichs Deutscher Nation / Augspurgischer Con-||feßion / derselben Landen / Kirchen / Schulen vnd Nach=||kommen zum Trost vnd besten in Druck || vorgefertigt. || Mit Churf. G. zu Sachsen befreihung. || Dreßden M. D. LXXIX.

[xiii] For the details see Pressel, Kurfürst Ludwig, 565, 567, 570f., 582, 587f.

[xiv] ZKG XIX 1899, 470f.

[xv] Lips[iae], Georg Defner. [Lipsia is Latin for Leipzig, so the citation means "in Leipzig, by the printer Georg Defner."]

[xvi] Ex forma Christianae Concordia Declaratio Articulorum, etc.

[xvii] Hauptst. Arch. Dresden 10 303 Concordia III.

[xviii] The subsequent information appears to refer specifically to BSLK.

View article...

Tuesday, February 23, 2010

FW: How do the Gesimas and Lent fit together? A word from the Anglicans

An Anglican perspective on pre-lent noticed by other Lutherans…


Feed: Historic Lectionary
Posted on: Tuesday, February 23, 2010 10:29 AM
Author: (Historic Lectionary Editors)
Subject: How do the Gesimas and Lent fit together? A word from the Anglicans


I just ran across this nice little chart/article by XXX over at lectionary central:

The Logic of Lent, by Robert D. Crouse

What I like about this chart is that it ties together the Gesimas as the preparation, the first half of Lent as battle with Satan, and the second half of Lent as the final journey.

What do you think?  Does this really fly?


View article...

FW: A Hymn Paraphrase of the Augsburg Confession

A very unique hymn for your consideration…


Feed: Cyberbrethren Lutheran Blog Feed
Posted on: Tuesday, February 23, 2010 12:35 PM
Author: Paul T. McCain
Subject: A Hymn Paraphrase of the Augsburg Confession




Matt Carver, Lutheran hymn translator-extraordinaire, posted on his blog site a fascinating translation of a hymn offering a paraphrase of the entire Augsburg Confession.

Here is my translation of Gott Vater, Sohn, und Geist (J. [Jakob] Fabricius, †1654) a paraphrase of the Augsburg Confession which Rev. B. Mayes found in said author's Predigten über die Augspurgische Confession (Nur.: W. Endter, 1652) and kindly brought to my attention. The poetic quality is a bit more detectable in the German, though in that version as in this, the odd lines are not rhymed. Especially if the artful Verzage nicht, du Häuflein klein [O Little Flock, Fear Not the Foe] is the work of the same author, you will see that it is not a lack of poetic feeling, but a commitment to deliver the confessional language accurately and succinctly, that has directed the tenor of this paraphrase. The lyric may be sung, as Rev. Mayes points out, to Nun danket alle Gott. Please advise of corrections to the sense, or improvements on the theological implications of my English translation where it deviates unhappily from the meaning of the German (or from the Augsburg Confession itself).

THREE PERSONS, yet one God,
Are Father, Son, and Spirit,
Who dwell in Light divine,
And as one Godhead share it,
Co-mighty, co-eterne,
Co-glorious, fully wise;
All teachings here opposed
Are heresies and lies.

2. By nature, we are born
Poor slaves to our transgression,
Since Adam's grievous fall,
And we are death's possession,
Till in baptismal floods
God gives us life again:
What lies Pelagius taught
On this we must disdain.

3. God, of true God begot,
And ever God remaining,
True Man of man was born,
Yet never thereby staining
His mother's virgin state,
And by His death doth save
Us wretches from our sins,
From torment, and the grave.

4. No human since the fall,
Thus dead in sin unsightly,
Can trust his worthless works.
By faith he must cling tightly
To what Christ Jesus did,
Who reconciled our race
To God, and by His death
Earned us both life and grace.

5. God ever by His Word
To living faith doth win us,
And by His Sacraments
Sustains that faith within us.
By these to work in us
God's Spirit is resigned;
The Anabaptists make
But idols of their mind.

6. As trees adorned with fruit,
And vines their clusters giving,
So are good works produced
By faith divine and living,
Such works are dear to God.
So see His pleasures through,
Yet be it all by grace,
And not by works we do.

7. One church there is alone,
yet many congregations,
One body, many limbs,
Throughout all generations,
As long as sun doth shine.
Though customs may abound,
Where the one truth is taught,
The church is ever found.

8. Not every soul is saved
Which in the church is sitting,
For often are her doors
Deceitful wolves admitting.
Nor are her Sacraments
Negated, in despite
Of what the priest believes,
Who fills his task aright.

9. The washing with the Word
Is needed to deliver
Salvation to the soul,
And join to God forever
By covenantal bond
All persons, young and old,
Both infant and adult,
In heaven's holy fold.

10. Christ's very Body_and Blood
Are in the Supper taken,
Which on the cross He gave
And shed, by God forsaken,
His Body with the bread,
And His Blood with the wine:
All doctrines otherwise
Deny the Word divine.

11. Confession of our sins
Is also kept among us,
Yet not that doubts and griefs
May burden, hound, or throng us.
But rather to release
Those sins that we feel most
For we can scarcely know
Nor number all their host.

12. If one who is baptized,
And, sin anew committing,
Yet afterwards repents,
His former sins regretting
With penitence and faith—
Then let him not despair
Of God's free gift of grace,
But fruits of sorrow share.

13. The Sacraments are not
Mere tokens of profession,
But are the pledge whereby
God makes us His possession:
So let those who partake
This promise rightly own.
Salvation comes by faith,
And not by use alone.

14. None ever shall presume
To fill the pastor's station
Unless he first be called
By orderly vocation,
He who would serve the church
Must rightly be ordained,
By Him who hath the right,
From Whom all rights are gained.

15. We justly do retain
Those feasts and observations
By which the ancient church
Enriches our traditions,
Those only we reject
Which hinder true belief,
Or load the conscience down
With human laws and grief.

16. All due authority
Should be respected ever;
From God it hath the pow'r,
Just verdicts to deliver,
And, waging righteous war,
To keep the common peace;
It is our earthly rule,
Until the earth shall cease.

17. When Jesus shall return
And this world meets destruction,
The dead shall all be raised
In one great resurrection:
One part to heav'nly joy,
And one to agony
No temp'ral reign of Christ
Shall earthly kingdoms see.

18. Although we grant mankind
Use of his free volition
For judgment in the things
Of reason and cognition,
Despite his fall in sin:
Yet that which serves the soul,
To save it, is not found
In nature as a whole.

19. All things in heav'n and earth
And everything created,
And which conceived can be,
In God originated:
The devil and man's will
Are yet the cause of sin
(which is the lack of good)
And so it long hath been.

20. Although no merit can
To works be reckoned ever,
Yet neither is it good
That man pursue them never,
Yet not those works devised
By what man's feeling saith,
But those from God's own Word,—
These are the fruits of faith.

21. We honor all the saints,
Their deeds, and their confession,
Esteeming them as good,
Yet not for intercession:
No saints can we invoke
To help us in our need
For only God our Lord
True help and aid can speed.

22. Since Christ did so ordain,
And Paul this word defended,
That in the Sacrament
Both Kinds should be extended,—
Nor did the priests withhold
The Blood from laity,
In early Christendom—
So let it ever be.

23. God willed that men should be
From lust by marriage turning,
For in their weak'ning state,
They often heeds its burning.
So pastors, too, should use
This ordinance divine,
Since they no less belong
To Adam's fallen line.

24. The Mass we have retained,
Yet one thing is not suffered:
That it be wrongly thought
Christ's sacrifice re-offered,
In truth, and without blood,
And have that force within,
As that which once for all
Did blot out all our sin.

25. Who goes his sins to own
And to the priest confesses,
Receives God's kindly Word,—
Forgiveness he possesses:
And Christ's true body_and blood
Are given in the Meal,
Though he recount alone
Those sins which he doth feel.

26. To chasten our own flesh
By fast and self-demotion,
If for God's glory done,
With heart of true devotion,—
Then it is done aright;
But if one seek aught else,
Self-merit, grace, or fame,
Then it is vain and false.

27. Monastic lives and vows
Are but a useless prison,
For in them great abuse
Has woefully arisen:
Men join their ranks by force,
Unthinking, and deceived,
To merit righteousness,
And work but villainy

28. The Spirit's pow'r God gave
The priesthood of the Spirit,
Wherefore they must not seek
Earth's kingdoms to inherit,
Or, like a prince, to rule
In judgment-seats mundane:
Not for the priest did God
The civil rule ordain.

(29.) Still many things there are
That need examination
Which, due to such abuse,
Cannot have validation:
Yet, let this do for now:
All those desiring more,
For their request shall find
Of answers, ample store.

Translation © Matthew Carver, 2010.

The German original follows in the extended entry.

1. GOtt Vater, Sohn und Geist sind eins in drei Personen,
Die unzertrennt beisam im Liecht der Gottheit wohnen,
Gleich Ewig, gleicher Macht, voll Weißheit, gleicher Ehr.
Verworffen müsse seyn der Ketzer Gegenlehr.

2. Wir sind der Sünden Knecht, soviel wir sind geboren
Natürlich, nach dem Fall: Der Tod ist uns geschworen,
Es sey dann, daß die Tauff uns wider lebend macht.
Pelagi Lehr hiervon ist fälschlich ausgedacht.

3. Gott, der von Gott erzeugt, bleibt Gott und wird geboren
vom Menschen wahrer Mensch, doch allzeit unverlohren
der Mutter Jungferschaft, und hilft durch seinen Tod
uns Menschen ingemein aus aller Sündennoth.

4. Kein Mensch ist nach dem Fall, der dürffte sich verlassen
Auff eigner Werk Verdienst, er muß im Glauben fassen,
Was Christus hat gethan, Der uns bey GOtt versühnt,
Und leben hat und Gnad durch Seinen Tod verdient.

5. Gott pflegt uns durch sein Wort den Glauben zuzuwenden,
Und dessen Unterhalt durch seine Sakramenten.
Es wirkt dadurch in uns der werthe GOttes Geist,
Das Widertäufervolk sein eignes Wissen preist.

6. Der Baum bezeugt die Frucht, der Weinstock seine Trauben,
So zeugen gute Werk von einem wahren Glauben;
Die Werk, die GOtt befiehlt. Drum thu, was GOtt gefällt,
Doch, daß es sei auf Gnad, nicht auf Verdienst gestellt.

7. Es ist nur eine Kirch, und die hat viel Gemeinen,
Als Glieder eines Leibs: Solang die Sonn wird scheinen,
So wird auch sie bestehn. Der Bräuchen Unterscheid,
Wo man nur einig lehrt, macht kein Uneinigkeit.

8. Sie sind nicht alle fromm, die in der Kirche leben,
Es pflegt sich oft darein der Gleisner Haufzugehen:
Doch nimt und gibt der Kraft der Sacramenten nicht
Deß Priesters Lebens Art, wann er sein Amt verricht.

9. Das Wasserbad im Wort ist Noht, zu überkommen
Der Seelen Seligkeit: Wir werden eingenommen
Dadurch in GOttes Bund, sowol das kleine Kind,
Als die schon allbereit bei Höherm Alter sind.

10. Im Abendmahl deß HErrn, wird Christi Leib genossen,
Und dessen wahres Blut, das er am Kreutz vergossen;
Der Leib zusamt dem Brod, das Blut zusamt dem Wein.
Die Lehr, die anders ist, stimmt mit der Schrift nicht ein.

11. Die Ohrenbeicht soll auch bei uns behalten werden,
Doch, daß die Seel dadurch nicht komm in neu Beschwerden.
Die Sünden allesamt umständlich zeigen an,
Ist eine schwere Sach, die niemand leisten kann.

12. Wer wieder nach der Tauf in schwere Sünd gerathen,
Kehrt aber wieder um von seinen Missethaten,
Erkennt, beicht, reut, und gläubt; der zweifle nimmer nicht
An GOttes Gnad, wo er auch bringt der Buße Frücht.

13. Nicht sind die Sakrament nur leere Gnadenzeichen;
Pfand sind sie auch, die GOtt und uns in eins vergleichen:
Drum der du sie geneußt, nimm rechte Kundschaft ein,
Der Glaub hilft mit dem Brauch, nicht nur der Brauch allein.

14. Es soll sich keiner nicht der Kühnheit unterstehen,
Daß er ins Priesterthum wollt unberufen gehen.
Wer GOtt im Kirchenamt will dienen, muß darein
Von dem, ders hat Gewalt, zuvor geordnet sein.

15. Die Zeremonien, die von den lieben Alten
Sind eingeführt, soll man auch billig noch behalten;
Wann nur kein Aberglaub dardurch verursacht wird,
Und kein Gewissenslast den Seelen aufgebürdt.

16. Man soll der Oberkeit Gewalt sich nicht entbrechen:
Sie ist von Gott gesetzt, was recht ist, recht zu sprechen,
Zu schaffen durch den Krieg, daß Fried im Lande sei:
Es bleibt, so lang die Welt, die weltlich Policei.* *d.h. Regiment.

17. Wann Christus wiederkömmt, wird diese Welt zergehen,
Und die jetzt nicht mehr sind, von Toden auferstehen:
Theils zu dem Himmelreich, theils zu der Höllen Qual.
Das weltlich Christi Reich, ist nichts nicht überall.

18. Es ist dem Menschen zwar sein freier Will gelassen
Auch nach dem Sündenfall, zu lieben und zu hassen,
Was die Vernunft begreift, was dient zur Seelen Heil,
Da fehlt es der Natur an allem ihrem Theil.

19. Was nur ein Wesen hat im Himmel und auf Erden,
Ist alles Gottes Werk, auch was gedacht kann werden.
Der Teufel, und der Will des Menschen, wirkt die Sünd,
(Die nur ein Mangel ist) wo sich dieselbe sind.

20. Es wird zwar kein Verdienst den Werken zugeschrieben,
Doch wär es auch nicht gut, daß man sie nicht sollt üben.
Die Werk, nicht die der Mensch aus eigner Wahl verricht,
Nur die, nach Gottes Wort, sind waare Glaubens Frücht.

21. Die Heilgen ehren wir, und ihres Glaubens Thaten
Sind bei uns höchstberühmt; doch ist uns nicht zu rathen,
Daß wir sie sollten auch in Nöthen rufen an:
Gott ist allein der HErr, der uns verhelfen kan.

22. Weils Christus eingesetzt, und Paulus auch behalten,
Im Abendmahl die zwo des Leibs und Bluts Gestalten.
Weil auch in erster Kirch der Priester und der Lai
Kein Unterschied gehabt, bleibts billig noch darbei.

23. Die Eh hat Gott gewollt, die Unzucht zu vermeiden,
Weil der verderbte Mensch pflegt manche Brunst zu leiden.
Wie soll der Priester dann nicht haben gleiches Recht,
Dieweil er auch gehört in Adams Stammgeschlecht.

24. Die Mess bleibt auch bei uns, nur dies kann nicht bestehen,
Daß Christi Opferung soll widerum geschehen,
Warhaftig, ohne Blut, und haben gleiche Kraft,
Wie jene, daß die Sünd dardurch werd abgeschaft.

25. Wer in den Beichtstuhl kömmt, und spricht, er hab gesündigt,
Dem wird aus GOttes Wort Vergebung angekündigt,
Und Christi Leib und Blut im Abendmahl gereicht,
Obschon nicht alle Sünd mit Umstand angezeigt.

26. Kasteien seinen Leib mit Fasten und dergleichen,
Wanns soll zur Andacht und zu Gottes Ehr gereichten,
Ists eine feine Weis: Wer anders sucht darin,
Vielleicht nur eigen Ehr, der häget falschen Sinn.

27. Das Klosterleben wär an sich ein feines Leben:
Allein der Misgebrauch, daß sich darein ergeben
Die Leut mit Unbedacht, mit Zwang und mit dem Wahn
Deß eigenen Verdienst, stiftt eitel Böses an.

28. Den Geistlichen hat Gott das geistlich Recht gegeben:
Drum sollen sie sich nicht erkühnen auch darneben
zu sitzen wie ein Fürst im weltlichen Gericht:
den Weltlichen gehörts, und keinem Priester nicht.

(29.) Es wäre mehrers zwar noch übrig zu vermelden,
Das wegen Misgebrauchs man nicht kann lassen gelten:
Doch sei dies jetzt genug: wer weiter was begehrt,
Wird allzeit auf die Frag der Antwort sein gewährt.

View article...

Monday, February 22, 2010

FW: English Chant Avalanche

For your reference…


Feed: New Liturgical Movement
Posted on: Monday, February 22, 2010 12:33 PM
Author: (Jeffrey Tucker)
Subject: English Chant Avalanche


I'm very excited to present to you four books that have nearly been lost to history, at least for Catholics, or perhaps just lost to me. In any case, I've looked for these for years and not found them. They were given for scanning by a generous benefactor to be given in turn to the world - and now they will be useful for Anglo-Catholic parishes and also the bulk of the Catholic world that uses Mass in English. They are authentic Gregorian Graduals in English notated with traditional neumes, put together by the geniuses G.H. Palmer and Francis Burgess, published variously between the 1930s and the 1960s. There are many aspects to these books that will be exciting. They are expertly prepared in every way and include the full Roman Gradual with sequences and Magnificats and Hymns of all sorts, including event Tracts in English (authentic tracts!).

Feast your eyes:

The Plainchant Gradual Vols 1 and 2

The Plainchant Gradual Vols 3 and 4

The Salisbury Antiphoner

Introits of the Sarum Rite

There is more I can say about these but I'll leave it at that.

View article...

Saturday, February 20, 2010

FW: What is the Chief Purpose of the Christian Worship Service?

When Willow Creek (the pioneer of the model mentioned in the post below) admits they made a mistake, why are folks still imitating them?


Feed: Cyberbrethren Lutheran Blog Feed
Posted on: Saturday, February 20, 2010 4:53 AM
Author: Paul T. McCain
Subject: What is the Chief Purpose of the Christian Worship Service?



Debates across all Christian church bodies of which I'm aware, for quite a long time, have been going on over the question of what the Sunday morning worship service is really all about. I should qualify that last statement. This discussion is going on across those churches that actually still do regard the Sunday morning worship service as, first and foremost, the occasion when the Holy and Almighty God serves His people through Word and Sacrament and they respond with prayer, praise and thanksgiving, giving their adoration and worship to the All Holy and Glorious Trinity: Father, Son and Holy Spirit.

A growing trend in such churches is to view the Sunday morning service as a tool to be used to attract non-believers to the Christian faith. Such a fundamental shift in understanding of what the purpose of the Sunday morning worship service is all about has extremely serious consequences for how worship is conducted, what goes on during the service, and so forth. Consider the following observations:

Worship is either an encounter with the reality of God, or it is some kind of attempt by man to raise himself by his own bootstraps. It then becomes an occasion for moralizing, a theatrical show, or a sort of pep rally. On the contrary, in the ancient church, the reading of the Gospel was surrounded with festive splendor because here Christ addresses His faithful followers. As the exalted Lord of the Church He today still exercises His prophetic function through His preachers and teachers. We still bear witness to His presence in the acclamations before and after the Gospel. We sing: "Glory be to Thee, O Lord!" and "Praise be to Thee, O Christ!"

- Earnest Koenker, Worship in Word and Sacrament, p. 47 HT: Weedon.

View article...

Friday, February 19, 2010

FW: Requiscant in Pace

Two noted musicians have passed away. Thanks to the Pastoral Meanderings blog for this post.




Feed: Pastoral Meanderings
Posted on: Friday, February 19, 2010 8:27 PM
Author: Pastor Peters
Subject: Requiscant in Pace



Once again I am sad to report the death of two very prominent and prolific composers of church music... Richard Hillert (1923-2010) is the composer of one of the settings of the Divine Service (LSB, LW, LBW), a composer of organ and choral music, a composer of hymn tunes, and an arranger of many of the hymn tunes in the Lutheran hymnals in use today.


The longtime professor at Concordia, River Forest, we music editor of the Worship Supplement (1969), Inter-Lutheran Committee on Worship (1966-1978), and Lutheran Book of Worship (1978). His gifts to the Church are sung in countless settings and by many different denominations. His Worthy is Christ ["This Is the Feast" in LSB DS1] for ILCW has found acceptance in more than 30 hymnals. A sample of his choral work is here.


He will be sorely missed as a composer, musician, scholar, and churchman.


Richard Proulx (1937-2010) is one of the most widely published contemporary composers in Christendom. He has given to the Church mass settings, canticles, hymn tunes, choral anthems, Psalm tones and refrains, organ works and a host of other musical publications. Proulx was also a conductor of the widely acclaimed The Cathedral Singers, which he founded.


Though perhaps more widely known among Roman Catholics, Proulx long ago transcended denominational circles to produce a great deal of music for the church at large. It is hard to know where to begin to list and chronicle the works of this widely published composer and musician. Hymnals across the ages and a across the denominations bear his musical gift of composition and arrangement and they will stand as his legacy to the Christian world. A tribute to Richard Proulx is on YouTube here


Both of these composers called the greater Chicago area their home. May the souls of these faithful departed rest in peace, according to the mercies of God.


View article...

Toward Concordia in Christ at Worship: How Did We Get to this Point?

How did worship practice in The Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod get to the point where we had to have a Model Theological Conference on the topic to address the Lutheran theology of worship?

I offer the following list as possible factors for the purpose of discussion. They are arranged according to three sections: Potentially Positive, Probably Neutral, Disastrously Negative.

Discuss them amongst yourselves!

+ Potentially Positive +

  • A renewed understanding of the freedom of the Gospel

  • "in the world, but not of the world" (see John 17:16-18)

  • "Sing a new song to the Lord"

  • Explosion of worldwide hymnody/song as fruit of the Gospel

  • Renewal in Lutheran theology and practice:

    • Hymnal Supplement 98

    • Lutheran Service Book

    • The Lutheran Study Bible

    • Treasury of Daily Prayer

    • Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions

    • New Reader's Edition of Law and Gospel (forthcoming)

    • Resurgence in lay theologians in the local congregation
~ Probably Neutral ~

  • Rediscovery/more use of the concept of "adiaphora"

  • Some changes in American culture (some are not negative in and of themselves)

  • (Re)acculturation or (Re)contexualization of Christianity in America

  • The rise of recorded music
- Disastrously Negative -

  • License

  • Weaknesses in Lutheran Worship (1982)

  • Perceived datedness of The Lutheran Hymnal (1941)

  • "Not in, but of"

  • Imitation of culture

  • Some are recluctant to be known as "Lutheran"

  • Lack of catechesis on worship

    • Home

    • Congregation

      • Sunday Morning

      • Sunday School

      • Confirmation classes

      • VBS exposure (or lack thereof)

    • LCMS Colleges/Universities

    • Seminary training

  • Decreasing Bible literacy

  • Decreasing emphasis on music education in public schools

  • Decreased opportunities for "group song" other than "Happy Birthday" and "The Star Spangled Banner"

  • Influence of practical, individualistic Americanism

  • A good theology of Lutheran worship was out of print for 30+ years

  • Outside influence from

    • Calvinism

    • Arminianism

    • Revivialism

    • Pietism

    • Pentecostalism

    • American Evangelicalism

In summary, we can't point ot merely one factor as THE reason why worship practice in the LCMS has deteriorated.

Even the concept of "deterioration" is built on an assumption, but a demonstrable one, that LCMS worship practice was more united in previous decades than it is currently.

In the German and early English days of the LCMS, liturgical uniformity was seen as a good goal for the sake of pastoral care. It now seems that "diversity" is the new goal. And I'm not convinced that it is a good thing. Nor am I convinced that it is largely for the sake of pastoral care.

More is still to come in our series, Toward Concordia in Christ at Worship. 

Resources Received

Roberts, Bob. Forewords by Rick Warren and Eboo Patel. Real-Time Connections: Linking Your Job with God's Global Work. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2010. 247 Pages. Paper. $16.99. (LHP)

Wednesday, February 17, 2010

Download a pdf of QBR 4.1, Christmastide 2009

Click on this link to download a 218-page pdf version of everything on the QBR blog from The First Sunday in Advent to Ash Wednesday.


Ash Wednesday

Our reviews and articles beginning with this post will constitute the beginning of QBR Volume 4, Issue 2.

A blessed Ash Wednesday to our readers.

(Previous posts will be considered Volume 4, Issue 1)

Monday, February 15, 2010

FW: Organ Music: Chorale Preludes

For our musicians' consideration.


Please note the first link below for a neat music discussion.


Feed: Lutheran Kantor
Posted on: Sunday, February 14, 2010 10:14 PM
Author: Chris
Subject: Organ Music: Chorale Preludes


Church musicians are often in a quandary when selecting sheet music to add to their libraries: a finite budget and seemingly infinite choices from music publishers.  The musician needs a discerning eye to determine what will be useful at their skill level and worship context.  Random selection might yield a few gems, but also result in a bloated collection.  A quality library doesn't necessarily have to be large.  It does, however, have to be well chosen. (I previously wrote about The Other Essential Lutheran Library – Musician Edition which included some of my "core" organ books.)

So where does a musician find resources to sift through all the choices?  I have usually received the best advice from my mentors and friends who are Lutheran musicians.  (Organists and Choir Directors: The Good Shepherd Institute's bi-annual newsletter His Voice normally has music recommendations from Kantor Kevin Hildebrand).

To that end, I would like to share with you a recent acquisition to my organ music library which I think will be quite valuable: the six volume series "Choralvorspiele Zum Evangelischen Gesangbuch."  The journey to this collection began in the summer of 2007 while I was at an Organist Workshop at Concordia Theological Seminary with Kantor Resch.  He had a volume of this series on the organ console and this gave me a hint to consider adding it to the library.  I recently inquired with Kantor Resch about the series and he highly recommended it.

Don't expect to find this series in your local music store.  I worked with the Organ Historical Society to import the series from Germany and they now carry it as an in-stock item ($36.95/volume).  This is frankly a bargain – each volume is 100-160 pages with between 70-140 pieces.

I suspect the Choralvorspiele Zum Evangelischen Gesangbuch is virtually unknown in the United States.  If you Google it, you will find lots of German retail sites, but only a handful of items in English — one of which is a review by Daniel Zager (Associate Professor/Dean at the Eastman School of Music).  If you have any inkling of interest, you should read Zager's review.

The series is published by Barenreiter, the text is completely in German, and is intended as an organ prelude supplement to the German hymnal "Evangelischen Gesangbuch."  In certain respects it is similar to the Concordia Hymn Prelude Series from CPH (now slowly going out of print) – it provides chorale preludes (and sometimes an intonation) on many, but not all, of the hymns in the German hymnal.

Since the text is all in German, you either need to know German, know your chorale tunes via name, or be willing to do some sight reading to determine the tune.  Just as a disclaimer: not all of the tunes in this series will be familiar and some will not be in our American hymnals (like Lutheran Service Book).  You can get a feel for the tunes used by looking at the "table of contents" at the Organ Historical Society site.  However, even though you might not find all the tunes in the LSB tune index, some of these tunes are still familiar.  "Den die Hirten lobeten sehre" AND "Kommt und laßt uns Christus ehren"?  We know them as Quem Pastores.  "Nun singet und seid froh"?  We know it as "In dulci jubilo".  Why the difference?  My guess is that the text at the top of each prelude is the hymnal number and hymn name — and like our own hymnals, multiple hymns can use the same tune.  The particular prelude/intonation may be written/associated with the given text.  The volumes are ordered based on the hymn numbers in the German hymnal and are generally divided seasonally/topically.

The contents of these volumes are not "new" in the strictest sense of the term.  Barenreiter has previously published most all of the pieces in other books.  This series could then be thought of as an anthology.  The pieces represent a broad spectrum of primarily German composers from 1600's – mid/late 1900's.  Walther, Kauffmann, Reger, and Jan Bender (to name a few).  J.S. Bach and Buxtehude appear occasionally, but certainly don't predominate (I assume the editor believed these works are already in the organist's library).  There is some redundancy in pieces that overlap Keller's 80 Chorales & Preludes, Reger preludes, the Organist's Golden Treasury, etc.  But there is plenty of content that will be "new" to the American organist.

The preludes vary in difficulty from moderately easy to medium difficulty.  There are a wide variety of presentations — manuals only, cantus firmus in the pedal or tenor line, bicinium, 4-part settings, toccata, etc..  Each tune will have at least one, but often more, preludes and/or intonations (Komm, Heiliger Geist, Herre Gott has 10 pieces).  Most are short (one or two pages long) and don't require any page turning.  Some of the preludes have been transposed into a different key to match the German hymnal — which many times will also match those of modern Lutheran hymnals.  However, as I have lamented in the past, these books, like many others, do not lie flat on the music rack and I have had them rebound with coil binding at the local Office Depot ($3/volume).

Just a brief anecdote:  If you have either of the Concordia Theological Seminary Kantorei CD's – "Infant Holy" or "With Angels and Archangels", the prelude to Jesus Has Come and Brings Pleasure Eternal is written by Jan Bender and is in volume 1.

Part of the appeal of this series is that it "fits" with the recent resurgence in the interest in the Lutheran music heritage.  CPH has released two comprehensive CD sets – Luther's hymns and Heirs of the Reformation.  The Good Shepherd Institute has released the excellent Singing the Faith DVD.  Musicians can help to encourage and reinforce this heritage by the music we play.

Choralvorspiele Zum Evangelischen Gesangbuch is a practical and valuable collection for the average Lutheran organist of tried and tested chorale preludes.  It is a collection that can grow with you — whether you are a newbie or experienced organist.  While this series doesn't have strictly "new" content, I think it will still be convenient to have so many chorale preludes under one "roof."  Definitely consider it.

Have questions?  Ask away.  I'm still exploring it and finding new treasures.



Related posts:

  1. Light of Christ – Organ Music Review
  2. New Music from CPH
  3. Sneak Peak – New Organ Music @ CPH

View article...

Sunday, February 14, 2010

Lutheran Songwriters' Conference

Resources Received: New Music and a DVD

Fireflight. For Those Who Wait. Franklin, TN: Provident Label Group, 2010. Audio CD. $13.98. (Discounts and mp3 download also available.) (H)

St. Michael's Singers (Recorded in Coventry Cathedral). Conducted by Paul Leddington Wright. Graham Eccles, Organist. The New Hymn Makers: Stuart Townend (How Deep the Father's Love). Eastbourne, East Sussex, UK: Kingsway Music, 2003. Audio CD. (mp3 album downoad available on iTunes for $11.99.) (H)

Townend, Stuart. Personal Worship/Say the Word. Eastbourne, East Sussex, UK: Kingsway Music, 2005. 2 Audio CDs. (mp3 download available on iTunes for $9.99 for each album.) (H)

Townend, Stuart. The Best of Stuart Townend Live... Eastbourne, East Sussex, UK: Kingsway Music, 2007. 2 Audio CDs. (H)

Townend, Stuart. There Is a Hope: Live Worship from Ireland with Guests Kelly Minter & Aaron Keyes. Eastbourne, East Sussex, UK: Kingsway Music, 2008. Audio CD. (H)

Townend, Stuart. Creation Sings. Eastbourne, East Sussex, UK: Kingsway Music, 2009. Audio CD and DVD.  (mp3 album download available on iTunes for $9.99.) (H)

St. Michael's Singers (Recorded in Coventry Cathedral). Conducted by Paul Leddington Wright. Alistair Reid, Organist. The New Hymn Makers: Stuart Townend (The Power of the Cross). Eastbourne, East Sussex, UK: Kingsway Music, 2009. Audio CD. (H)

Snore, Edvins. The Soviet Story. New York: Perry Street Advisors LLC, 2008. DVD video. $24.95. (LHPN)